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The United States of America (commonly called the United States, the U.S., the USA, America, and the States) is a federal constitutional republic comprising fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean.
At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km2) and with over 312 million people, the United States is the third or fourth largest country by total area, and the third largest by both land area and population.

275px-Statue_of_Liberty_frontal_2.jpgThe Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; French: La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor, designed by Frédéric Bartholdi and dedicated on October 28, 1886. The statue, a gift to the United States from the people of France, is of a robed female figure representing Libertas, the Roman goddess of freedom, who bears a torch and a tabula ansata (a tablet evoking the law) upon which is inscribed the date of the American Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776. A broken chain lies at her feet. The statue has become an icon of freedom and of the United States.
Bartholdi was inspired by French law professor and politician Édouard René de Laboulaye, who commented in คาสิโน 1865 that any monument raised to American independence would properly be a joint project of the French and American peoples.

80px-US-LibraryOfCongress-BookLogo.svg.png The Library of Congress is the research library of the United States Congress,
Located in four buildings in Washington, D.C.,it is the largest library in the world by shelf space and number of external image arrow-10x10.png.
The Library of Congress was instituted for Congress in 1800, and was housed in the United States Capitol for most of the 19th century. After much of the original collection had been destroyed during the War of 1812, Thomas Jefferson sold 6,487 external image arrow-10x10.png, his entire personal collection, to the library in 1815. After a period of decline during the mid-19th century the Library of Congress began to grow rapidly in both size and importance after the American Civil War, culminating in the construction of a separate library building and the transference of all copyright deposit holdings to the Library. During the rapid expansion of the 20th century the Library of Congress assumed a preeminent public role, becoming a "library of last resort" and expanding its mission for the benefit of scholars and the American people.


where do toy "teddy bears" come from?
The story of the Teddy Bear . . .
Many of us have loved a teddy bear.
Maybe we've even had more than one very special "teddy" in our lives. Here is the real story of how the teddy bear sprang into our hearts.
Nearly 100 years ago, President Theodore Roosevelt, went on a bear hunt. He enjoyed nature and being out in the woods where animals lived. Because he was the President of the United States, the people organizing the hunt wanted to make sure the hunt was successful.
But after 3 days of walking and climbing and riding, no bears were found. Now what? The President's bear hunt would be a failure!
The next day the hunt guide and his hunting dogs finally found an old bear. The dogs and guide followed the bear for quite a distance until the bear was very, very tired. The dogs attacked and injured the old bear. The guides tied the bear to a tree and called for the President. Here was a bear for him to shoot!
President Roosevelt looked at the poor old bear and said "no!" No one would shoot this old bear for sport. That would not be right. However, the bear was injured and suffering. President Roosevelt ordered that the bear be put down to end its pain.
A political cartoonist by the name of Clifford Berryman heard this story. A political cartoonist draws about current events in the news. Mr. Berryman drew a cartoon showing how President Roosevelt refused to shoot the bear while hunting in Mississippi.

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After this famous cartoon appeared in the papers, a shopkeeper, Morris Michtom took two stuffed toy bears which his wife had made and put them in his shop window. He had an idea.
Mr. Michtom asked for permission from President Theodore Roosevelt to call these toy bears "Teddy's bears". This store eventually became the Ideal Novelty and Toy Company.


now toBelarus




Famous places of Belarus:
Mir Castle.jpg
Mir Castle is a unique monument of Belarusian architecture. It is included into the UNESCO List of World Heritage. It was erected at the end of 15th - early 16th century by duke Ilinich. The castle was built in the Gothic style. Approximately in the middle of the 16th century Mir Castle became the property of duke, Radziwill who finished the construction of the castle.
The Castle is a square building with the towers at its corners. One of Mir's towers was a go-through and had a drawbridge and iron lattice that could stop a sudden attack easily. The castle represented an unassailable fortification - its walls were protected by two rows of loop-holes and towers were adjusted to shooting from heavy guns. All towers of Mir Castle have the same shape, yet they are decorated differently, which add to the beauty of the castle. Later the Radzivilles built a three-storey palace in the Renaissance style along eastern and northern walls of the castle. Then the Italian garden was laid out to the north of the castle and on the southern side an artificial lake appeared. The lake was done with the order of Nikolai Sviatopolk-Mirsky. He ordered to cut down an old garden, and instead dig a huge pond. One man dead during harvesting, whose mother cursed all the Count’s race and that place. And soon a little Nikolai’s daughter Sonia drowned in that pond, and after a time, Nikolai himself was found dead on the shore of the pond.
There is a legend that somewhere in the Radzivilles' castle innumerable treasures are hidden and until now people have been trying to find them. The Mir's underground system of communication is so large that some of its parts have not been investigated yet. According to one of the legends, a faithful servant of the lord hid the treasures in one of the numerous underpasses of the castle and exploded the entrance. And now people believe that there is a ghost in the castle that guards the treasures and frighten the visitors of Mir Castle. Another legend reads that in the 17th century Radziville made a big underpass between Mir and Nesvizh Castles, in which two coaches were able to pass one another. Probably, this is where the treasures are. Thus every visitor has a chance to find them.

Nesvizh is one of the oldest and most mysterious cities in Belarus. It is located 100 kilometers south of Minsk. At the end of the end of the 15th - early 16th century the Radzivilles began the construction of a new castle on the place of the previous one made of wood. A famous Italian architecture Giovanni Bernadone was invited for this project (he was also the one who built the Radzivilles burial-vault). The beauty and splendor of decoration of the new residence could have left far behind many royal courts: parquet flooring made of the most valuable sorts of wood, stucco ceiling and gold-plated or painted walls. Nesvizh Castle also has its ghost - the Black Dame strolling along dark corridors of the palace during moonless nights – it’s the spirit of Barbara Radzivill.

Barbara Radzivill

The Radzivill castle in Nesvizh is not just a magnate residence. This is a mystical palace and one of the most mysterious places in Belarus. There ia a ghost in the castle. This is a spirit of Barbara Radzivill, the wife of the king of Poland Sigismund.

According to the legend Barbara married Sigismund under warps from the Polish Royal Household. Soon after the secret wedding Sigismund’s father – the king of Poland – died, and Sigismund became a king.

According to the rules of that time Sigismund had to increase the strength of the state with a good marriage. The court didn’t know about the marriage of the young king and began to look after a fiancée for him. Sigismund’s mother – Bona Sforza - placed herself at the head of the search.

Bona didn’t like it, but she couldn’t throw down her daughter-in-law lawfully. Bona did like a real Italian. With the whole court she went away to Italia, but left a doctor, who made a poison for Barbara. Barbara was poisoned. She was buried in Krakov.

But Sigismund loved Barbara very much and didn’t want to accept her death. The king decided to conjure up the spirit of his wife with help of alchemists and magicians. By the rules the king couldn’t touch the spirit of Barbara during the séance. When all the necessary ritual actions were done and the spirit of Barbara appeared, the king couldn’t help rushing to his beloved and touched her. In the same moment something blew up in the room, it began to smell putrid.

They say, that since than the spirit of Barbara can’t have peace. They say that the spirit has lived in the Nesvizh castle since king’s death.

As a rule the spirit of Barbara appears in the castle at night, by 1:00. According to the legend the appearance of the spirit warn of the coming troubles. She was seen in the castle right the day before the fire in 2002.

National costumes
The origins of Belarusian clothing tradition lie in the ancient Kiewan Rus’. The moderate continental climate, long winter and mild summer required a closed, warm clothing. Fabrics were made out of flux and wool, decorated with printed or embroiled ornaments, or weaved from using threads of different color.
The nobility were making their clothing mainly using imported fabrics – brocade, velvet, tuft – of different shades of red, blue, and less often green. The embroideries with silk and pearls were used as decorations. The general aesthetic requirement was static and simplicity of the silhouette. The basics of set of male clothing was had a shirt with a belt and trousers, female – a shirt (longer than male) and “paniova” type skirt (wrap-around?).

An outside clothing was usually a “svita” type coat often lined with fur inside for winter clothing. These features were transferred to the clothing in western lands of ancient Rus’, where in XIII-XVI a Belarusian nationality was formed. The costume of Belarusians conserved it’s ties with costume of Russians and Ukrainians, but also acquired the features of our other neighbors – Poles, Lithuanians, Latvians and other European nations. The formation of Belarusian costume has coincided with the development of new, more complicated techniques of cut, the sophistication of dressmaking in Western Europe, which leaded to significant changes of European clothing




Famous places of Canada :


In 1841, Lower Canada (Quebec) and Upper Canada (Ontario) joined to make the Province of Canada. Its seat of government alternated for many years. In 1857, Queen Victoria was asked to select a permanent capital. The queen chose to have the government settle in Ottawa because it’s far enough away from America’s border. In 1859 and 1866 east and west wing were built. After a year passed confederation was brought in.

On February 3, 1916 a fire started in the commons reading room, this turned into a raging blaze and 7 people died. Some people thought that this was an attack because this was all happening in the middle of World War 1, but as they looked into it, it was just an accident.



From northwest to southeast, Russia shares borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both via Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It also has maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, and the US state of Alaska by the Bering Strait. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the eighth most populous nation with nearly 143 million people as of 2010.
Russia has the world's largest forest reserves and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the world's fresh water.

The Moscow Kremlin, 800px-Moscow_Kremlin_from_Kamenny_bridge.jpg
sometimes referred to as simply the Kremlin, is a historic fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River (to the South), Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square (to the East) and the Alexander Garden (to the West). It is the best known of kremlins (Russian citadels) and includes four palaces, four cathedrals and the enclosing Kremlin Wall with Kremlin towers. The complex serves as the official residence of the President of the Russian Federation.

Red Square , 800px-RedSquare_(
is a city square in Moscow, Russia. The square separates the Kremlin, the former royal citadel and currently the official residence of the President of Russia, from a historic merchant quarter known as Kitai-gorod. As major streets of Moscow spread from here in all directions, being promoted to major highways outside the city, Red Square is often considered the central square of Moscow and all of Russia.



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Babushka images (1).jpgBabushka or baboushkameaning "grandmother" or "old woman"The Legend of BabushkaThere is a tale that has been told throughout the years about an old Russian woman named Babushka. Old people nod their heads in agreement as they hear parents tell their children about Babushka. Children's eyes scan the face of every old woman they pass during the winter months, trying to find this legendary person who visits the home of every child at Christmas time. Her story started many years ago in a small home out in the country. She lived alone in a small hut that stood along side a crossroads where four roads met. Even though she lived far away from neighbors and far away from any town, during the summer months Babushka was entertained by wagons filled with hay pulled by donkeys carts loaded with vegetables pushed by farmers, riders on horseback and strangers passing by on foot. But, during the long Russian winter, only the sound of the birds she fed with the blackened crusts of wheatbread left over from her meals kept her company. Her days were short, and her nights were long during the winter months. Babushka was frail and unable to cut large amounts of wood to heat her home. In addition, she was poor and could not afford to light up the cottage at night with expensive candles. This is why she spent much of her time in the evenings curled up beneath her warm quilts dreaming about spring flowers and warm sunny skies. It was on one of those long nights when Babushka thought she heard the tinkling of bells and sounds like those made by travelers being carried on the cold wind. At first, she told herself that she only heard icicles clinking on frozen branches. But, the sounds grew louder. She did hear the sound of bells, but it was not the familiar sound of the bells on a troika, the traditional Russian three-horse sleigh. Nor, did she hear the neighing of horses or the braying of donkeys like most travelers would use. There were voices that grew louder as they came closer to her home, and she heard strange grunts from animals that were unfamiliar to her ears. She pulled back the quilts and lit one of her precious candles and pulled her robe around her. She folded a scarf and wrapped it around her head and then held her candle to the window. As she scraped the frost off to see better, she was startled to hear a knock at her door. Opening the door, she was even more surprised to see a caravan stopped outside of her hut. Babushka saw three tall hairy beasts with long faces. Each had long, tall legs with padded feet at the bottom and a hump on its back. Sitting on the back of each animal sat a richly dressed man. The men were dressed in warm, expensive looking fur wraps and wore crowns set with jewels over cloths that kept the cold off their heads. The bells she heard were attached to the reigns the men held tightly in their hands. Each of the men had a number of servants with them, and one of these men was standing at her door trying to ask directions to a place she had never heard of before. Seeing Babushka's confusion, one of the wealthy men spoke a command to the beast he rode. It knelt and allowed him to step off. "We are Kings on a long journey from a land far to the east, the man told the confused old woman. We have seen a wondrous star in the sky and have been following it. It is supposed to lead us to a town where a newborn baby lies. But, the star is blocked by clouds. Can you tell us the way to the next village where we can find shelter for the night?" "Who is this child? And why are you trying to find him?" asked Babushka. "The child is a King, and we go to find him and worship him, and we bring him gifts. Come with us Babushka," the man suggested. "You will never have this opportunity again." But, Babushka looked at the dark sky. She felt the cold of the winter wind. Then, she shook her head and said, "Perhaps tomorrow in the light of the day, when the air is warmer." But the Kings could not wait for the old woman to make up her mind and left Babushka alone in her home listening to the sound of the clattering bells as the animals the King called camels rode into the night. By morning, the tracks of the caravan were filled with snow making Babushka wonder if her memory of the night visitors was real or only a dream. Still, she kept thinking about their quest to find the special child. She had no children of her own, no one to love and no one to love her. The more she thought of the invitation to go with the Kings, the sadder the old woman became. Finally, the old woman could stand the sadness no more. She wrapped her warmest scarf about her head and pulled her cloak and a shawl about her shoulders. She filled a basket with breads and sweets and gifts for the child and left her empty home behind forever. She walked through village after village asking people about the special child who was a King. She told them about the visit by the Three Wise Kings and the star they followed. She carried treats and small gifts with her, so children would not run away when she tried to look closely at them and see if they were the special child she sought. The years have passed, and old Babushka probably doesn't even realize that the baby grew up long ago. She still runs fast along the crowded streets and over the country fields tired and out of breath trying to catch up with the Three Wise Kings and find the special child. She only stops at Christmas Eve as she searches through every nursery looking for the child that is Christ.also visit this link to watch a story :Babushka


and now HappyKids_000.jpg let's go to


The Alps , is one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching approximately 1,120 km (700 miles) from Austria and Slovenia in the east through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Germany, France and Monaco in the west. The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc, at 4,810.45 m (15,782 ft),on the Italian–French border. The Alps is split into five climate zones, each with a different kind of environment. The climate, plant life and animal life vary on different sections or zones of the mountain.
1- The section of the Alps that is above 3,000 metres is called the névé zone. This area, which has the coldest climate, is permanently coated with compressed snow. Plants are therefore scarce in the névé zone.
2 - alpine zone lies between the height of 2,000 and 3,000 metres. This zone is less cold than in the névé zone. Wildflowers and grasses grow here.
3 - Just below the alpine zone is the subalpine zone, 1,500 to 2,000 metres high. Forests of fir trees and spruce trees grow in the subalpine zone as the temperature slowly goes up.
4 - At about 1,000 to 1,500 metres high is the arable zone. Millions of oak trees sprout in this area. This is also where farming takes place.
5 - Below 1,000 metres are the lowlands. Here, a larger variety of plants are produced. Aside from plants, villages are also in the lowlands because the temperature is more bearable for both humans and animals.


Mont Blanc

is the highest mountain in the Alps , It rises 4,810.45 m (15,782 ft) above sea level ,
The mountain lies in a range called the Graian Alps, between the regions of Aosta Valley, Italy, and Haute-Savoie, France.The two most famous towns near Mont Blanc are Courmayeur in Aosta Valley, Italy, and Chamonix in Haute-Savoie, France—the site of the first Winter Olympics. A cable car ascends and crosses the mountain from Courmayeur to Chamonix.
Begun in 1957 and completed in 1965, the 11.6 km (7¼ mi) Mont Blanc Tunnel runs beneath the mountain between these two countries and is one of the major trans-Alpine transport routes.
The Mont Blanc massif is popular for mountaineering, hiking, skiing and snowboarding.


and now let's move to





To the north, it borders France, Switzerland, Austria and Slovenia along the Alps. To the south, it consists of the entirety of the Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia–the two largest islands in the Mediterranean Sea–and many other smaller islands. The independent states of San Marino and the Vatican City are enclaves within Italy, while Campione d'Italia is an Italian exclave in Switzerland. The territory of Italy covers some 301,338 km2 (116,347 sq mi) and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. With 60.8 million inhabitants, it is the fifth most populous country in Europe, and the 23rd most populous in the world.

The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, 800px-Colosseum_in_Rome,_Italy_-_April_2007.jpg
is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.
Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction started in 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was completed in 80 AD under Titus .

Tuscany ,
is a region in Italy. It has an area of about 23,000 square kilometres (8,900 sq mi) and a population of about 3.75 million inhabitants. The regional capital is Florence (Firenze).
Tuscany is known for its gorgeous landscapes, its rich artistic legacy and its influence on high culture. Tuscany is regarded as the true birthplace of the Italian Renaissance, and has been home to many influential people in the history of arts and science, such as Petrarch, Dante, Botticelli, Michelangelo, Niccolo Machiavelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo Galilei, Amerigo Vespucci, Luca Pacioli and Puccini. As a result of this, the region has several museums (such as the Uffizi, the Pitti Palace and the Chianciano Museum of Art).

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The Leaning Tower of Pisa :450px-Leaning_tower_of_pisa_2.jpg
(Italian: Torre pendente di Pisa) or simply the Tower of Pisa (Torre di Pisa) is the campanile, or freestanding bell tower, of the cathedral of the Italian city of Pisa.
The height of the tower is 55.86 m (183.27 ft) from the ground on the low side and 56.70 m (186.02 ft) on the high side. The width of the walls at the base is 4.09 m (13.42 ft) and at the top 2.48 m (8.14 ft).
A popular tourist activity is to pose for photographs pretending to "hold up" the leaning tower and preventing it from falling.The illusion is created through the principle of forced perspective.


And now to



is the largest state in the United States by area. It is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait. Alaska is the 4th least populous and the least densely populated of the 50 United States.
Alaska was purchased from Russia on March 30, 1867, for $7.2 million ($120 million in today's dollars) at approximately two cents per acre ($4.74/km²). The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized (or incorporated) territory on May 11, 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959.
The name "Alaska" (Аляска) was already introduced in the Russian colonial period, meaning "the mainland" , it is also known as Alyeska, the "great land"


Some of Alaska's popular annual events are the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race .


Dear kids HappyKids_000.jpg, our culture train will take us now to



officially the Republic of Austria ,
is a landlocked country of roughly 8.47 million people in Central Europe. It is bordered by the Czech Republic and Germany to the north, Hungary and Slovakia to the east, Slovenia and Italy to the south, and Switzerland and Liechtenstein to the west. The territory of Austria covers 83,855 square kilometres (32,377 sq mi) and has a temperate and alpine climate. Austria's terrain is highly mountainous due to the presence of the Alps; only 32% of the country is below 500 metres (1,640 ft), and its highest point is 3,798 metres .

Innsbruck : 800px-IMG_9040-Innsbruck.JPG is the capital city of the federal state of Tyrol in western Austria. It is located in the Inn Valley at the junction with the Wipptal (Sill River), which provides access to the Brenner Pass, some 30 km (18.6 mi) south of Innsbruck. Located in the broad valley between high mountains, the Nordkette (Hafelekar, 2,334 metres or 7,657 feet in the north, Patscherkofel (2,246 m or 7,369 ft) and Serles (2,718 m or 8,917 ft) in the south. It is an internationally renowned winter sports centre, and hosted the 1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics as well as the 1984 and 1988 Winter Paralympics. Innsbruck hosted the first Winter Youth Olympics in 2012.
The Burgtheater800px-Wien_Burgtheater.jpg
(en: (Imperial) Court Theatre), originally known as K.K. Theater an der Burg, then until 1918 as the K.K. Hofburgtheater, is the Austrian National Theatre in Vienna and one of the most important German language theatres in the world. The Burgtheater was created in 1741 and has become known as "die Burg" by the Viennese population;its theatre company of more or less regular members has created a traditional style and speech typical of Burgtheater performances.

The Belvedere is a historical building complex in Vienna, Austria, consisting of two Baroque palaces the Upper and Lower Belvedere, the Orangery, and the Palace Stables. The buildings are set in a Baroque park landscape in the 3rd district of the city, south-east of its centre. It houses the Belvedere museum. The grounds are set on a gentle gradient and include decorative tiered fountains and cascades, Baroque sculptures, and majestic wrought iron gates. The Baroque palace complex was built as a summer residence for Prince Eugene of Savoy.

The Belvedere :800px-Wien_Schloss_Belvedere_DSC02997.JPG800px-Belvedere_Vienna_June_2006_009.jpg
was built during a period of extensive constructions in Vienna, which at the time was both the imperial capital and home to the ruling dynasty. This period of prosperity followed on from the commander-in-chief Prince Eugene of Savoy's successful conclusion of a series of wars against the Ottoman Empire.

The University of Vienna :


is a public university located in Vienna, Austria. It was founded by Duke Rudolph IV in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world after Charles University in Prague which was founded in 1348. It is the largest university in Austria and one of the largest in Europe.
Nobel Prize Laureates who taught at the University of Vienna include Robert Bárány, Julius Wagner-Jauregg, Hans Fischer, Karl Landsteiner, Erwin Schrödinger, Victor Franz Hess, Otto Loewi, Konrad Lorenz and Friedrich Hayek.
The University of Vienna was the cradle of the Austrian School of economics. The founders of this école who studied and later instructed at the University of Vienna included Carl Menger, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser, Joseph Schumpeter, Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek.
Other famous scholars who have taught at the University of Vienna are: Theodor W. Adorno, Manfred Bietak, Theodor Billroth, Ludwig Boltzmann, Franz Brentano, Anton Bruckner, Rudolf Carnap, Conrad Celtes, Viktor Frankl, Sigmund Freud, Eduard Hanslick, Edmund Hauler, Hans Kelsen, Adam František Kollár, Johann Josef Loschmidt, Fran Miklošič, Oskar Morgenstern, Otto Neurath, Johann Palisa, Pope Pius II, Baron Carl von Rokitansky, August Schleicher, Moritz Schlick, Ludwig Karl Schmarda, Joseph von Sonnenfels, Josef Stefan, Leopold Vietoris, Jalile Jalil, Carl Auer von Welsbach, and Olga Taussky-Todd.

Mariazell :

is a small city in Austria, in Styria, well known for winter sports, 143 km N. of Graz. It is picturesquely situated in the valley of the Salza, amid the north Styrian Alps.
It is the most important pilgrimage site in Austria and also has great meaning for Catholics in the neighboring countries to its east.
Styria :
is a state or Bundesland, located in the southeast of Austria. In area it is the second largest of the nine Austrian federated states, covering 16,401 km². It borders Slovenia as well as the other Austrian states of Upper Austria, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Burgenland, and Carinthia. The population (as of 2011) was 1,210,700. The capital city is Graz .


To Francefrench-flag.jpg


is a unitary semi-presidential republic in Western Europe with several overseas territories and islands. Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is often referred to as l’Hexagone ("The Hexagon") because of the geometric shape of its territory. It is the largest country in Western Europe and the third-largest in Europe as a whole, and it possesses the second-largest exclusive economic zone in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 sq mi), just behind that of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 sq mi).Over the past 500 years, France has been a major power with strong cultural, economic, military and political influence in Europe and around the world. During the 17th and 18th centuries, France colonised great parts of North America and Southeast Asia; during the 19th and early 20th centuries, France built the second largest colonial empire of the time, including large portions of North, West and Central Africa, Southeast Asia, and many Caribbean and Pacific Islands.
The Paris Opera :

(French: Opéra de Paris, or simply the Opéra) is the primary opera company of Paris. It was founded in 1669 by Louis XIV as the Académie d'Opéra and shortly thereafter was placed under the leadership of Jean-Baptiste Lully and renamed the Académie Royale de Musique.
Each year, the Opéra presents about 380 performances of opera, ballet and other concerts, to a total audience of about 800,000 people .

The Eiffel Tower :

nickname La dame de fer, the iron lady) is a puddled iron lattice tower located on the Champ de Mars in Paris, named after the engineer Gustave Eiffel, whose company designed and built the tower.
The tower stands 320 metres (1,050 ft) tall,The tower has three levels for visitors. Tickets can be purchased to ascend, by stairs or lift (elevator), to the first and second levels. The walk from ground level to the first level is over 300 steps, as is the walk from the first to the second level. The third and highest level is accessible only by lift - stairs exist but they are not usually open for public use. Both the first and second levels feature restaurants.




The country is situated in western Europe, where it is bordered by Germany to the north, France to the west, Italy to the south, and Austria and Liechtenstein to the east.
Switzerland is a landlocked country geographically divided between the Alps, the Swiss Plateau and the Jura, spanning an area of 41,285 km2 (15,940 sq mi). While the Alps occupy the greater part of the territory, the Swiss population of approximately 8 million people is concentrated mostly on the Plateau, where the largest cities are to be found. Among them are the two global cities and economic centres of Zurich and Geneva.
The Swiss Confederation has a long history of armed neutrality—it has not been in a state of war internationally since 1815—and did not join the United Nations until 2002.

The Federal Palace:220px-Bundeshaus_Bern_2009,_Flooffy.jpg is the name of the building in Bern in which the Swiss Federal Assembly (federal parliament) and the Federal Council are housed. It consists of a central parliament building and two wings (eastern and western) housing government departments and library.The building was designed by the architect Hans Auer and its inauguration took place on 1 April 1902. The total cost, at the time, was 7,198,000 Swiss Francs.


The Engadin or Engadine :800px-Engadine.jpg(German: Engadin, Italian: Engadina, Romansh: Engiadina; tr: garden of the Inn) is a long valley in the Swiss Alps located in the canton of Graubünden in southeast Switzerland. It follows the route of the Inn River from its headwaters at Maloja Pass running northeast until the Inn flows into Austria one hundred kilometers downstream. The Engadin is protected by high mountains on all sides and is famous for its sunny climate, beautiful landscapes and outdoor activities.

Tarasp Castle :
(German: Schloss Tarasp, Romansh: Chastè da Tarasp) is a castle located in Switzerland, near Tarasp, in Lower Engadin, Graubünden. It is a Swiss heritage site of national significance.

Augusta Raurica :800px-Theater_Kaiseraugst.jpg

is a Roman archaeological site and an open-air museum in Switzerland. Located on the south bank of the Rhine river about 20 km east of Basel near the villages of Augst and Kaiseraugst, it is the oldest known Roman colony on the Rhine gclub slot.


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